Green Carbon

Frequently asked questions

From expertise to petroleum-based fuels – The most requested questions from Green Carbon.

Biodiversity loss, CSRD, ERU, double counting… We understand that all the terms and concepts associated with our industry can make your head spin (believe us, sometimes we have to look them up ourselves). To make things a bit easier for you, we’ve provided explanations of some of the key terms below.

Carbon is a chemical element. Carbon is found in many greenhouse gases.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a chemical compound. It is produced by all forms of combustion. Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas produced by humans. 

A carbon sink collects and stores a chemical compound containing carbon, usually carbon dioxide. In Finland, forests are the most important carbon sinks, but globally, oceans are the second most important carbon sink. Forests and oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as a result of photosynthesis, which means that carbon is bound to them, i.e., forests, oceans, and other photosynthetic organisms act as carbon sinks. In addition, carbon dioxide as such and in other inorganic forms is dissolved in the oceans.

Carbon can also be released back into the atmosphere, for example as a result of tree decay. When more carbon dioxide is sequestered than is released back into the atmosphere, carbon sinks are formed.

The carbon footprint is the amount of greenhouse gases produced during the life cycle of a product or activity.

Managing your carbon footprint is part of being responsible. Once the carbon footprint has been calculated, the emissions from a company’s activities can be reduced. In general, reducing emissions also improves efficiency, leading to financial savings. Calculating the carbon footprint can also provide insights into other development needs. In addition, consumers have a growing desire to make greener choices, and businesses must be able to respond to these changing needs.

Calculating your carbon footprint has many benefits for your business. In order for a company to reduce its emissions, the carbon footprint must be calculated. The result of the calculation will give the company an accurate report on the impact of different aspects of its business, allowing it to identify the most important areas for reduction. This will provide the basis for making cuts in emissions, which will usually result in savings for the company. 

In addition, carbon footprint information is increasingly important to investors and consumers. A carbon footprint can be calculated for a product, activity, or the company as a whole, as needed.

The carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq. or CO2e) is a quantity that describes the climate-warming effect of emissions. Because different greenhouse gases warm the climate differently, the CO2 equivalent takes account of these differences by calculating the different effects in the same unit.

Carbon neutrality means that the net amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere is reduced to zero. Carbon neutrality often does not mean zero emissions but is achieved through emission reductions and offsetting unavoidable emissions.

A climate unit is equivalent to one additional tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (t CO2e) produced by an offset project. Organisations can buy and use climate units to offset their emissions. Purchased units are removed so that they do not re-enter the system and cause double counting.

Green Carbon’s own climate units from domestic carbon sinks cost €28.

The price of foreign carbon credits varies from around €10 to €30. 

Climate change is a long-term, significant change in the climate, due to a rise in the global average temperature of the climate. Global temperatures have already risen by about 0.8 degrees Celsius since industrialisation in the 1880s and will continue to rise unless action is taken at both individual and corporate levels.

Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s lower atmosphere and oceans. 

Climate change is the result of a rise in the global average temperature of the climate. The rise in temperature is driven by increased greenhouse gases, the most important of which is carbon dioxide. 

Human activity, for example through industry or the burning of fossil fuels, contributes to climate change. Human activity changes the amount of greenhouse gases and fine particles in the atmosphere, as well as cloud cover. 

Greenhouse gases and fine particles change the amount of solar radiation reaching and reflecting off the Earth, which can have a warming or cooling effect on the climate. With industrialisation, human activities have had a warming effect on the climate.

The release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The most important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. 

Emissions fall into three different categories. Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions that result directly from activities. Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from the use of energy and electricity. Scope 3 emissions are indirect emissions from the final use of products sold and the purchase of goods and services.

There are actually many different options for reducing emissions. The cheapest way is to save energy and increase energy efficiency. These are often the most important emission reduction targets identified by carbon footprint calculations. 

Making emission reductions is an important environmental act for a company. However, in addition to emission reductions, the carbon released into the atmosphere must also be sequestered through carbon sinks. Through our carbon services, we offer companies the opportunity to take meaningful climate action to mitigate climate change. 

For example, you can reduce emissions by: 
  • Reducing energy consumption – for most organisations, energy use is by far the largest contributor to their carbon footprint, often up to 50%. 
  • Recycling more and thus sending less waste to landfill. 
  • Reducing air travel – business travel can be a significant part of an organisation’s carbon footprint. 
  • Reducing fuel use. 
  • Developing sustainable procurement – some organisations attribute a large part of their carbon footprint to the embedded carbon emissions in their supply chain.

Emission offset the financing of projects around the world that help reduce carbon emissions in a measurable and verifiable way. These projects include renewable energy production, energy efficiency improvements, reducing deforestation, and planting trees. 

Offset projects that meet the standards are regularly audited to ensure that emission reductions, or carbon credits, are being generated. Once these carbon credits are achieved and verified, organisations, for example, can purchase and use them to offset unavoidable emissions.

Offsetting is an important environmental measure to mitigate climate change. By offsetting emissions, a company can aim for carbon neutrality in a product or activity. Carbon neutrality is in itself a significant competitive advantage and differentiation factor in the eyes of consumers.

Climate units are the result of a fertilisation partnership between Green Carbon and Finnish landowners. Proper fertilisation and good forest management will increase tree growth, resulting in new carbon sinks.

We should try to reduce emissions as much as possible, but at the moment it is not possible to reduce emissions to zero globally. For example, there is not enough renewable electricity to meet global energy demand and the number of non-carbon modes of transport is nowhere near the level required for international trade. 

So even with emission reductions, there are areas where emissions will inevitably occur – indirect emissions are less likely to be affected and offsetting is a good way forward.

The increase in CO2 emissions in the atmosphere is an international problem. The atmosphere has no boundaries, so when CO2 enters the atmosphere, it spreads and affects the global climate. So geographically, it does not matter where the project from which carbon credits are purchased is located.

The reduction or elimination of greenhouse gases as a result of measures. Additionality is one of the criteria for official compensation. 

Afforestation is the replanting of forests. 

Forests are a key element in the fight against climate change, as they effectively absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen into the air. In this way, they clean the air of carbon dioxide, i.e., they act as carbon sinks. 

By working together, we will identify ways to increase the growth of your forest and thus create new carbon sinks. Through climate action, the landowner can earn additional compensation outside the normal forest and agricultural income streams based on the measures taken. 

Climate change is a complex and global phenomenon that requires the contribution of all actors in society to mitigate. Businesses now have the opportunity to monitor the environmental impacts of their operations, minimise and offset them, and thus lead the way in their sectors. 

Carbon sequestration is the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Forests are a key element in the fight against climate change, as they effectively absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen into the air. In this way, they clean the air of carbon dioxide, i.e., they act as carbon sinks. 

Carbon sequestration removes carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere through emissions. The amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has increased significantly due to population growth and human activity. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide, together with other greenhouse gases, contributes to rising atmospheric temperatures. 

ISO 14064 compliance is a kind of quality certification that covers all stages of the process, from landowner contracts to the management of units sold to businesses. An audit, or review of operations, ensures that all parties have carried out the agreed activities to the extent planned. The ISO 14064-2 standard is applied. 

ESG stands for Environmental, Social and Governance, a term used when talking about responsibility and sustainability. ESG therefore refers to issues related to corporate environmental and social responsibility and governance, such as environmental issues, employee welfare and working conditions, and reporting. Sustainability issues are approached in the market from an ESG risk perspective, that is, by identifying the material sustainability risks, what they may mean for the company, and how to prepare for them. 

SFDR stands for Sustainable Finance Disclosure Regulation, the EU regulation on sustainability disclosure in the financial services sector that entered into force in 2021. The regulation aims to make the sustainability profiles of funds more comparable and easier to understand for end-investors. It focuses on assessing the environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance of the investment process. 

Do you think there is something essential missing from this list? Is there something you would like to know more about? Contact us and we’ll share the answer with you and others. 


It’s great that you are interested in sustainability work. Contact our CEO Matti or our Sales Manager Saija directly; they will help you find the best solutions and guide you on your path.

Alternatively, you can fill out the contact form and provide additional information in the message field. We will get back to you within a few working days.


Matti Toivonen


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